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    Influences of meteorological factors on COVID.19 pandemic: prevalence and outcomes
    (جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري, 2020) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    In late of 2019 Coronavirus pandemic started from China (Wuhan Province) and then later spread to the world. The authors set forth a debate about the most important factors which influenced the feast and even the consequences of COVID-19 and then the foresight of COVID-20, which is the climate change and its related meteorological factors. Climate change found to affect directly on virus activation and indirectly on the host behavior and even immune response. Persons live in cold, arid and air polluted areas suffer from both spreads of the pandemic and serious complications of the COVID19 infection, due to low level of vitamin D, low activity of thyroid gland, with low levels of thyroid hormones (T3,T4 and TSH) and reduction in angiotensin 2 level. Aged persons living in these zones are the most victims from this pandemic. We conclude that persons living in the industrialized countries zones are affected more than those under the same meteorological circumstances in non-industrialized countries due to low air pollution.
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    The host's immune response against dengue virus infections
    (جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري, 2023) Ghanem Mohammed Mahjaf; Tibyan Abd Almajed ALtaher; Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    One of the biggest global public health issues is dengue virus (DENV) infection, particularly in tropical areas of the world where 75% of dengue cases occur. While most DENV infections are moderate or asymptomatic, about 5% of cases go on to develop a severe version of the illness. This is primarily related to several infections with various DENV serotypes that occurred in succession. Numerous immunopathogenic pathways involving virus and host variables influence the severity of dengue. New research suggests that an inadequate immune response, by limiting viral clearance and causing severe inflammation, which ultimately results in dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome, contributes to the progression and severity of the disease. The natural history of viral infections, notably dengue, is greatly influenced by the host's innate and adaptive immune responses. In this context, it has been noted that RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming more prevalent in viral infection processes and immune defense in recent years. The context microRNAs (miRNAs) go for stands out as their presence during viral infection, both in the replication of the virus and in the defense against these infections, becomes more noticeable. As a result, it is becoming more and more important to understand the role of these small RNAs within viral infection by DENV and what their consequences are in aggravating the consequences of patients affected by this disease. Additionally, DENV specifically targets immune mediators to inhibit antiviral signal transduction and invisibly hides to avoid immune surveillance. The initial line of defense against viral infections is innate immunity, where type I interferons are a key component. Many viruses manage to get past inherent defenses and infect the host. Numerous investigations have demonstrated that in order to circumvent the host's immunological response, viruses like DENV decrease type I IFN production. The 5 dengue virus has four widely recognized serotypes: DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. A fifth serotype was recently discovered in 2013. Although DENV serotypes are roughly 65% similar, infection with various serotypes causes a variety of clinical symptoms. In addition to the host cell's cellular machinery being used by the virus, a host cell also produces different antiviral reactions. The creation of interferon-dependent cytokines, the induction of inflammation, and cell death through inducing apoptosis or autophagy are just a few of the ways the host immune system fights virus infection. We go over processes that are essential for the Dengue virus reproduction cycle in mammalian cells, its pathogenicity, and several antiviral defenses put forth by the host cell in this overview. Understanding the Dengue virus replication cycle and the host proteins that the virus uses as a resource might be crucial for creating antiviral targets and is of utmost relevance for maintaining public health
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    Autophagy: The Powerful of Immune Response
    (Medcrave, 2019-12-29) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
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    Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus among Pregnant ladies Attended to Alfadlab Hospital, River Nile State, Sudan
    (ERC, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus represents a big problem to both mothers and their babies, due to the future expected consequences. Material and method: In this study we use glucosuria as indicator to the presence of GDM among 100 pregnant ladies attended to Alfadlab hospital, during the study period (August,2019). Result: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among the pregnant ladies involved in our study was 4%. Conclusion: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among the pregnant ladies included in our study (4%), is low in comparison to the worldwide reports. Further studies recommended with large sample size.
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    The Outcome of the Treatment of Malnourished Children Treated by Ready- To-Use Therapeutic Food and Ready to Use Supplementary Food in Wad- El- Bashir Heath Center, 2021
    (ERC, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    Introduction: Malnutrition includes both undernutrition and overnutrition. Child undernutrition is a major global health problem that is more common in low-income countries like Sudan, it can cause childhood morbidity, mortality, and impaired intellectual development. Objective: This study was conducted to assess the outcome of malnourished children treated with ready to-Use Therapeutic Food (RUTF), and ready to-Use Supplementary Food (RUSF) in Wad Elbasheir Health Centre in Ombada Locality Methods: This is an analytical Cross-Sectional facility-based Study conducted at Wad Elbasheir Health Centre. A convenient nonprobability sampling technique was used in this study. Data were collected using a datasheet after being pretested. Data were collected from secondary data from the records of malnourished children treated by the RTUF and RUSF. Results: The majority of the participants of this study were aged between 6 to 23 months (84%) and most of the participants were females (56%). This study showed that 70 (24%) of the participants were classified as severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM), while 218 (76%) were classified as moderate Acute malnutrition (MAM). This study showed that having a smaller number of children in the family and middle Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) between 11.5-12.5 cm were more associated with recovery. Moreover, this study showed that children who use amoxicillin or anti-worms were more likely to be recovered from malnutrition. Conclusion: RUTF was designed for the nutritional management of children with uncomplicated acute malnutrition treated as outpatients. In this study, most of the children recovered. In addition, this study found that several factors were associated with better outcomes including fewer children in the family, MUAC between 11.5-12.5 cm, having MAM (compared to having SAM), and using amoxicillin or anti-worms.
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    Evaluation Of PT And APTT among Diabetes Mellitus Type2 Patients in Atbara City, Sudan
    (ERC, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. To evaluation of PT and PTT among diabetes mellitus type 2 patients. This is a cross-sectional study with a control group based conducted in Atbara hospital during the period from March to July 2018. The patients were interviewed according to a questionnaire prepared for this purpose. A total of 50 samples were from patients with type2 diabetes mellitus and 50 samples were from healthy persons as control. PT and APTT were measured using semi-automated coagulometry (TECO- COATRON M1, GERMANY). The data was analyzed by SPSS software using an independent t-test. The results show that the mean level of prothrombin time in type 2 diabetic patients was (16.64±3.09 Sec) and of control was (16.7±1.24 Sec), it was none significantly correlated (P value = 0.832) and the mean level activated partial thromboplastin time APTT in type 2 diabetic patients was (38.3±8.7) Sec and of control was (36.2±2.7 Sec), it was none significantly correlated (P. value =0.111). Our study concluded that patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus had no hypercoagulable state due to PT and APTT. Another study with large sample size and many variables to reach another fact.
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    Assessment of Iron Profile among Sudanese Patients with Chronic Renal Failure in Shendi Town
    (ERC, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    This is a descriptive cross-sectional case-control study conducted in Al-Mak Nemir University Hospital in Shendi town to evaluate the iron profile in patients with chronic renal failure during the period March to July 2018. The study included thirty patients who were diagnosed with chronic renal failure and the study group was compared with ten healthy volunteers as a control group. Blood samples were collected from the two groups, Iron profile parameters were measured, Data was collected using a structured face-to-face questionnaire, and the (SPSS) version (11.5) program was used for data analysis. The study revealed the patients with chronic renal failure were (73.3%) male and (26.6%) female, distributed as (66.7%) have (31-50) years old, (23.3%) have (51-70) years old, and (10%) have (71-100) years old. The iron profile indicated that the mean values of S. iron, S. ferritin, and TIBC, were (182.2667ug/dL), (267.4000ug/L), and (195.2333ug/dL) respectively. This study showed that chronic renal failure is responsible for significant changes in iron profile
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    Magnesium Switch Key of COVID.19 Morbidity , Mortality and Treatment
    (LAP, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
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    Rate of Acute Complications of Blood and Blood Products Transfusion among Children at Jafar Ibn Ouf Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan,2022
    (ERC, 2022-10-01) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed Hamad
    Background: Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood products into one`s circulation intravenously. transfusions are used for various medical conditions to replace lost components of the blood. early transfusions used whole blood, but modern medical practice commonly uses only components of the blood, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, plasma, clotting factors, and platelets. Objectives: To assess the Rate of Acute Complications of Blood and Blood products Transfusion among Children at Jaffar Ibn Ouf Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan,2021. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional, Observational, descriptive hospital-based study. Data were collected using a checklist including brief clinical history and examination and laboratory investigation, type of blood transfusion, and short-term complications. Data were cleaned and entered into a Microsoft Excel data sheet and were analyzed using SPSS latest version software. Result: A total of 130 pediatric patients participated in this study their ages ranged from 1-17 years, most of them; 56 (43.1%) were aged less than 5 years. Of most patients, 89 (68.5%) had blood transfusions based on both clinical conditions and lab results, and 24 (18.5%) patients had blood transfusions based on their clinical conditions. In most patients, 124 (95.4%) had a complete transfusion. Only 15 (11.5%) patients developed blood reactions among them 8 (53.3%) patients developed febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction, 6 (40%) patients developed an allergic reaction, and 1 (6.7%) patient developed transfusion-related acute lung injury. According to patients’ outcomes; most of them 123 (94.6%) were discharged, and 2 (1.5%) cases of death. Conclusion: The main limitation of this study was that it was conducted in only one hospital, and the results may differ in other hospitals. Although our hospital serves a large geographical catchment area with numerous referrals, we do not know if current data accurately reflect the overall transfusion pattern in other similar health facilities or the country as a whole due to a lack of local comparable data. A multicenter survey is advised because it can provide more data and more solid conclusions
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    وبائية مرض الدرن: دراسة حالة محليتي (عطبرة - بربر)
    (2011-07) هدى عثمان محمد علي; فاطمة البشرى سر الختم; رميساء يحي خضر
    المستخلص : تم جمع معلومات عديدة عن مرض السل الرئوي (الدرن) ، وتم التعرف على طرق انتقالة وكيفية حدوث المرض وكيفية تشخيصه ، تم تحليل المعلومات عبر برنامج (SPSS ، توصلت النتائج الي أن الإناث اكثر عرضة للإصابة بالمرض من الذكور ، أوصت الدراسة بعمل دراسات متكاملة عن المرض وعمل محاضرات تثقيفية وذلك لضعف الوعي الصحي ، واقترحت الدراسة تخصيص مركز لإختبار مرض الدرن في محلية بربر.