ItemDetermination of Immunity Status of Vaccinated Health Care Workers against Hepatitis B Virus in Khartoum State, Sudan(Middle East Research Journal of Medical Sciences, 2024-01-20) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: The vaccination of health care workers (HCWs) for the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a crucial part of hospital infection control programs. They are considered to be a population at high risk of developing HBV infection due to the high transmissibility of the virus and the risk related to occupational injuries. The risk is particularly high in HCWs with greater exposure to accidental inoculation at work and is related to the duration of professional activity, the characteristics of the healthcare center, and the type of population served. Objectives: The current study was conducted to evaluate the immunity status of the vaccinated HCWs against HBV in Khartoum State. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive laboratory-based study was conducted from December 2022 to February 2023. Data were collected through a structured questionnaire regarding age, gender, type of employment, length of employment, and duration of vaccination for each participant. 90 vaccinated HCWs were enrolled in this study; serum samples were collected from each participant; the Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay technique was used to detect the anti-HBs level; and the collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: This study included 90 healthcare workers, female 70 (77.8%), male 20 (22.2%) ages ranging from 20 to 52 years old, 45 (50%) of them laboratory specialists, and 23 (23.3%). Nursing 17 (18.9%), Dentists 5 (5.6%), and 2.5 (2.2%). The results of the current study reveal that 70% of the studied vaccinated HCWs have a protective level of HBs-Ab. Of these, 23.3% had an anti-HBs titer between 10 and 100 mIU/ml, and the rest, 46.7%, had an anti-HBs titer >100 mIU/ml, while 30% of them were not protective, 22.2% of them were males, and the rest, 77.8%, were females, with a mean age of 30 years. Conclusion: Though many HCWs had been exposed to the virus before or had received vaccinations, the majority of them were seroprotected against the hepatitis B virus. HCWs must be made aware of the prescribed immunization schedule and must be required to receive all recommended vaccinations. ItemEvaluation of Complete Blood Count Changes in Patients Undergo Hemodialysis in Shendi Town, Sudan(Middle East Research Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2024-01-04) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Chronic Renal failure is a major health problem and affects the economic and social status of patients. In Sudan, according to the ministry of health records, the prevalence of renal failure is increasing by approximately 70 to 140 new patients undergoing dialysis each year. This high frequency is thought to be due to epidemic malarial infection, which is well known to cause glomerulonephritis. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Shendi town during the period from September 2021 to January 2022, and aimed to determine hematological parameters in hemodialysis patients. A total of venous blood samples were collected in EDTA anticoagulant containers then mix well and transfer to the laboratory, following standard procedures to prevent contamination, then count complete blood count automatically. Results: Statistical analysis by SPSS showed that the Mean of HB in pre and post-hemodialysis was(7.4g/dl and7.9 g/dl), the mean PCV in pre and post-hemodialysis was(22.7% and 25.8%), the mean of RBCs count in pre and post hemodialysis was(2.6x1012cell/l and 2.8x1012cell/l), the mean of WBCs count in pre and post hemodialysis was(5.4x109/L and 5.1x109/L), the mean of platelet count in pre and post hemodialysis was(152000cell/mm3 and 146000cell/mm3), the mean of the MCV in pre and post-hemodialysis was(86.7fl and 89.0fl), the mean of MCH in pre and post-hemodialysis was(28.3pg and 28.2pg) and the mean of MCHC pre and in post hemodialysis (32.8g/dl and 31.9g/dl). Conclusion: The study concluded that the hematological parameters in Shendi town in Hemodialysis patients cause an increase in RBCs, Hb, PCV, and lymphocyte count, no significant effect on PLTs, red cell indices not affected by hemodialysis and remain within normal range and women more affected than men as well as elder people. ItemIsolation and Identification of Bacterial Contamination Water Supply in Shendi City-Sudan(Middle East Research Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2024-01-04) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Microbial contamination of water persists to be a significant problem; the usual source is human and animal fecal matter that has contaminated the water systems. The presence of bacteria and pathogenic organisms is of great concern when considering the safety of drinking water, as pathogenic organisms can cause watery diarrhea, cholera, typhoid fever, and other illnesses. Objective: This is a prospective tap water examination study to find groundwater microbiological fecal contamination. Materials and Methods: Water samples for laboratory examination were collected from a different area of Shendi city, which were classified as Tap water. Each sample was a collection in a sterile container and then isolated and Confirmation by biochemical test. Results: Tap water samples were found to be contaminated with E. coli about 80 (63.6%) samples, an indicator of contamination with the fecal matter of animals and humans. It was the isolation of other Gram-negative enteric bacteria such as Salmonella and pseudomonas these were not scientific indicators of water contamination by animal and human fecal matter. Conclusions: Tap Water was contaminated with feces and posed a health risk to consumers of that water and was found to be contaminated with E.coli bacteria. Future studies are needed to understand the complicated issues concerning water quality in the city. Community-led sanitation and hygiene education and better water source protection are urgently required. ItemEffect of Thyroid Dysfunctions on Complete Blood Count in Almatama Town-Sudan(Middle East Research Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2024-01-04) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Thyroid hormones have a crucial role in the metabolism and proliferation of blood cells. Thyroid dysfunction causes different outcomes on blood cells such as anemia, erythrocytosis, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and in rare cases causes’ pancytopenia. It also alters RBC indices including MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RDW. Objectives: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted in Almatama town during the period from September 2021 to January 2022, aimed to assess the effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on blood cell count and RBC indices. Materials and Methods: Fifty patients with thyroid disease (24 hyperthyroidism, 26 hypothyroidism) and 20 healthy subjects served as controls. Whole venous blood samples were collected in EDTA anticoagulant container, mixed well, transferred to the laboratory according to standard procedures to avoid contamination, and then automatically counted for complete blood counts. Results: RBCs, HB, MCV, MCHC, and MCH, had statistically insignificant results in thyroid patients when compared with the control group (P. value 0.225,0.077,0.235,0.498,0.626) respectively. In hyperthyroid RBCs, HB, PCV, MCV, and MCH were statistically insignificant (P. value 0.388,0.951,0.123,0.575,0.148) respectively, and a statistically significant MCHC (P. value 0.0020). In hypothyroid HB, PCV, and MCH were, statistically significant (P. value 0.001,0.010,0.029) respectively, RBCs, MCV, and MCHC were, statistically insignificant (P. value 0.166,0.107,0.125) respectively. Conclusions: The hematological parameters were affected by thyroid disease, In case of patients with unknown hematological dysfunctions, must be evaluated for thyroid hormones. The follow-up of patients with thyroid disorders should have the complete blood count and patients diagnosed with anemia should be considered for thyroid conditions before iron treatment. Cases of anemia that resist therapy should be investigated for the case of thyroid dysfunction. ItemThe Magnitude and Related Risk Factors of Obesity and Overweight among Medical Students at Shendi University, Sudan(SAR PUBLISSHER, 2024-01-04) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Today, obesity is a serious health issue that is growing around the world. Almost 500 million adults worldwide were obese, and 1.5 billion were overweight, according to a World Health Organization (WHO) report. This number is estimated to increase in the years to come. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of obesity and overweight among medical students at the Shendi University College of Medicine and its relationship to demographic parameters. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study was conducted on medical students of the faculty of medicine at Shendi University, and a sample of students was systematically randomly collected. Data was collected by using an open and closed questionnaire. Direct measurement of weight and height, then the calculation of BMI. Also, direct measurement of waist and hip, then the calculation of WHR. Results: 43% of the students were classified as average. 26% of people were overweight, and 21% were obese. In other words, the study discovered that women are more likely than men to be overweight or obese. According to the findings, those who live in urban areas gain weight noticeably more than people who live in rural areas. Regarding the behavioral aspect, there was a substantial relationship between those with a positive family history of obesity and those who are of normal weight, as well as a positive relationship between those who ate more than two meals each day. Conclusions: University students frequently engage in risky health behaviors, so it's important to educate them on how to prevent them, especially when it comes to topics like exercise and nutrition. For the sake of their health and the health of future generations, prospective healthcare professionals must adopt the proper eating habits and a healthy lifestyle. We advise modifying BMI to account for fat distribution and coexisting diseases to gain a thorough understanding of the current situation ItemSerodiagnosis of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Anti Hepatitis C Virus among Hemodialysis Patients in Khartoum State- Sudan(SAR Publisher, 2024-01-03) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a hepatotropic virus that can establish a persistent and chronic infection in humans through immune energy. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a hepatotropic RNA virus that causes progressive liver damage. In hemodialysis (HD), blood is removed from the patient with needles and plastic tubing and pumped past the dialysis membrane. Poisons and toxins cross the dialysis membrane into the dialysate, which is then discarded, and the blood is returned to the patient. Objectives: The study aimed to detect HBsAg and anti-HCV in HD patients and the control group. Methods: A retrospective case-control, a hospital-based study was carried out on 110 participants 60 HD patients and 50 control, 60 males and 50 females, ages between 20 -39 years 27 participants and ages between 40-59 years 32 participants and ages more than 60 51 participants, ELISA method was used to detect HBsAg and anti-HCV in HD patients and control sera, the study was carried out during the period from August 2021 to January 2022. Results: In this study, the overall prevalence of HBV infection among HD patients and the control group was 26.3% (2/110), and among HD patients was 45 % (27/60), while it was 4% (2/50) among the control group any non – HD patient, co-patient, hospital staff and the overall prevalence of HCV was 1,8 % (2/110) and it was 3.3% (2/60) among the HD patients, 0% (0/50) among the control group. There was a significant association between HBV infection and HD (P value 0.019). Conclusions: The prevalence of HBV among HD patients was very high (45%). The results emphasize the need to carry out proactive tasks for early diagnosis by using highly sensitive and specific methods such as PCR technique, treatment of infected individuals, and vaccinating those with non-protective anti-HB antibodies to reduce morbidity and mortality in HD patients. ItemEvaluation of Iron Profiles and Coagulation Profiles in Ischemic Heart Diseases Patients in Elmek Nimir Hospital, Sudan(SAR Publiher, 2024-01-03) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a constellation of diseases that includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. It belongs to the group of cardiovascular diseases and is the most common type among them. Iron is an essential trace element. It plays an important role in maintaining various cellular functions and enzymatic reactions. On the other hand, excessive intake of iron is known to be a risk factor for the progression of atherosclerosis. Abnormal iron deposition in the heart causes hemochromatosis and dilated cardiomyopathy, which leads to ischemic heart disease. Objective: This study aims to investigate the role of serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), PT, and PTT in ischemic heart disease (IHD) and their relationship with other risk factors for IHD. Methods: This is a prospective, case-control, cross-sectional analytical study conducted at Elmek Nimir University Hospital, Shendi City, to assess the iron profile and coagulation profile of patients with ischemic heart disease. The study included (30) patients diagnosed with ischemic heart disease and the study group was compared with the mean of the control group (20). Serum iron, ferritin, and TIBC were estimated using a spectrophotometer, and PT and PTT were estimated using manual methods. Data were collected using a structured personal questionnaire and the program (SPSS) version (11.5) was used for data analysis. Results: In this study, patients with ischemic heart disease were (40%) male and (60%) female. In this study, iron averaged (41.0) ug/dl (P. value 0.010), ferritin averaged (233.0) ug/dl (P. value 0.000), and TIBC averaged (44.0) μg/dl. Was shown. (P. value 0.000) compared to mean controls (27.0), (162.0), (56.0). A significant difference was found between the iron profile and his IHD. This study showed the mean PT, PTT for cases (13.4), (40.4) (P-value 0.024), (P. value 0.009) compared with the mean for controls (12.0), (35.1). A significant difference was found between the coagulation profile and IHD. Conclusions: This study concluded that serum levels of iron, ferritin, TIBC, PT, and PTT may be associated with Ischemic heart disease. ItemAntimicrobial Activity of Azithromycin and Erythromycin against Streptococcus Pyogenes Isolated from Sore Throat Patients in Shendi, Sudan(SAR Publiher, 2024-01-03) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Streptococci is considered one of the predominant flora colonizing the respiratory tract of humans. The group A Streptococci (GAS) causes the broadest range of diseases that can lead to the asymptomatic carriage, superficial infection of the upper respiratory tract mainly throat infection. Objectives: The study was carried out to assess the antimicrobial activity of azithromycin and erythromycin against Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) isolated from sore throat patients. Methods: Sixty-one throat swab samples from both sexes were collected randomly from different clinics in Shendi, Sudan from patients with clinical findings suggestive of throat infection between August to November 2021. Streptococcus pyogenes were isolated by standard cultural techniques and identified by using Gram stain and biochemical tests. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Azithromycin and Erythromycin were assessed using the disc diffusion method. Result: 19 throat swab samples (31%) out of 61 had S. pyogenes growth, whereas 42 (69%) did not. Of the patients, 12 (63.2% of them) were men, and 7, 36.8%, were women. The ages of the infected patients ranged from 1 to 10 years old in 2 (5.3%) cases, 11 to 20 years old in 2 (10.5%), 21 to 30 years old in 15 (78.9%), and 41 to 50 years old in 2 (5.3%) cases. In contrast to the other 5 (26.3%), 14 of them (73.7%) had recurring throat infections. Out of the 19 S. pyogenes isolates that tested positive, only 12 (63.6%) were susceptible to azithromycin and just 7 (36.8%) were resistant. 13 (68.4%) of the 19 S. pyogenes positive isolates were erythromycin sensitive, whereas 6 (31.6%) were resistant. Conclusion: Azithromycin and erythromycin are more sensitive to S. pyogenes, which indicates less excessive usage of these antibiotics in Shendi. Streptococcal infections in the respiratory tract are challenging to treat, and selecting an antibiotic treatment involves numerous considerations. Any isolated strain's susceptibility to antibiotics should be assessed because this is the only way to ensure quick and successful treatment. In order to improve public health, antibiotic therapy should be accompanied by adequate preventive measures, such as training nursing staff to prevent as many nosocomial infections as possible, educating the general public about the importance of hygiene and encouraging them to stop self-medicating and fostering closer scientific collaboration between clinicians and microbiologists ItemCase Report: Entamoeba Histolytica and Candida Impair Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapy Effect in Malaria Patient(SAR publisher, 2023-12-28) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadMalaria is an endemic disease in Sudan, and the emergence of antimalarial drugs resistance represent a serious problem affecting the Sudanese population. Acidity reduces absorption of antimalarial drugs and allows for malaria parasites to survive and multiply. Enteric pathogens such as Entamoeba histolytica, candida and Helicobacter pylori may support the growth of Plasmodium falciparum, through inhibition of the absorption of antimalarial agent, such as artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) ItemHypothesis: Gastric Acidity as a Possible Cause of Antimalarial Failure in Sudan(Middle East Research Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2023-12-26) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadMalaria is an endemic disease in Sudan and represent one of major health problems influencing the fragile economy of the country, as many protocols established there, but still malaria cases exaggerated, certainly after the current conflicts between army and the paramilitaries. Wars, poverty, and their social consequences increase stress among local population, which regarded as on of the main causes of acidity, besides malnutrition, wrong feeding behavior and opportunistic infections with certain bacteria such as H. pylori and some fungi like overgrowth of candida species may elevate the blood acidity. Unfortunately, acidity affect absorption of antimalarials, then we suggested that usage of antiacids should preceed ingestion of antimalarial tabs to enhance its absoption, in order to clear malaria parasite from blood. Luckily, antiacids releive acidity of microbial origin, which is attibuted to candidal overgrowth or H. pylori infection, and then as we mentioned above increase clearance of plasmodium. Patient history of recurrent gastric acidity, stool analysis, H. pylori test and blood PH are recommended to avoid treatment failure of malaria patient. Besides antimalarial misuse among our local population in Sudan we suggested that gastric acidity is the one of the main reasons of antimalrial protocols failure in Sudan, specifically after choloroquine resistance. We hypothesized that usage of antiacids prior to administration of antimalarial drug will promote the effectiveness of antimalarials ItemThe Conventional Diagnostic Techniques of Malaria in Endemic Areas: A Review of the Approaches with Focus on Newly Noninvasive Methods(Crimson, 2023-03-17) Mosab Nouraldein Mohammed HamadBackground: Malaria continues to be a major global health problem, with over 228 million cases and 405,000 deaths estimated to occur annually. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential to decrease the burden and impact of this disease, particularly in children. We aimed to review the main available techniques for the diagnosis of clinical malaria in endemic settings and explore possible future options to improve its rapid recognition. Methods: Electronic databases including, Google, Google Scholar, PMC, PubMed, Science Direct, and Scopus were rigorously searched using the terms Malaria diagnosis, Microscopy for malaria, plasmodium detection, Rapid diagnostic tests, PCR for malaria for the completion of this descriptive review. Result: Literature review shows that Light microscopy is still considered the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis and continues to be at the frontline of malaria diagnosis. However, technologies such as rapid diagnostic tests, mainly those that detect histidine-rich protein-2, offer an accurate, fast, and affordable alternative for malaria diagnosis in endemic areas. They are now the technique most extended in endemic areas for parasitological confirmation. In these settings, PCR-based assays are usually restricted to research and they are not currently helpful in the management of clinical malaria. Other technologies, such as isothermal methods could be an exciting and alternative approach to PCR in the future. Conclusion: Available evidence suggests that the role of RDT, despite its increasing false negatives, is still the most feasible diagnostic test because it is easy to use, fast and does not need expensive equipment. Noninvasive tests that do not require a blood sample, but use saliva or urine, are some of the recent tests under development that have the potential to aid malaria control and elimination. Therefore, future innovation will be required to apply more sensitive and affordable methods in resource-limited settings.