Magnesium Switch Key of COVID.19 Morbidity , Mortality and Treatment

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جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري
Magnesium is the eighth most widespread element in the layer of the Earth. The most abundant source of biologically accessible magnesium, though, is the hydrosphere (i.e. oceans and rivers). In the sea, the concentration of magnesium is 55 mmol/L and in the Dead Seaas an extreme examplethe concentration is documented to be 198 mmol/L magnesium. Magnesium salts easily dissolved in water and are much more soluble than the respective calcium salts. As a result, magnesium is readily obtainable to organisms. It plays a significant role in vegetation and animals alike. In plants, magnesium is the vital ion of chlorophyll. In vertebrates, magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation and is essential, especially within cells, being the second most frequent intracellular cation after potassium, with both these elements being fundamental for numerous physiological tasks. It is a Group 2 (alkaline earth) element within the periodic table and has a relative atomic mass of 24.305 Da, a specific gravity at 20°C of 1.738, a melting point of 648.8°C and a boiling point of 1090°C. In the dissolved state, magnesium binds hydration water tighter than calcium, potassium and sodium. Thus, the hydrated magnesium cation is hard to dehydrate. Its radius is 400 times larger than its dehydrated radius. This difference between the hydrated and the dehydrated state is much more prominent than in sodium (25-fold), calcium (25-fold) or potassium (4-fold). Consequently, the ionic radius of dehydrated magnesium is small but biologically relevant. This simple fact explains a including its often antagonistic behavior to calcium, despite similar chemical reactivity and charge. For instance, it is almost impossible for magnesium to pass through narrow channels in biological membranes that can be readily traversed by calcium because magnesium, unlike calcium, cannot be easily stripped of its hydration shell. Steric constraints for magnesium transporters are also far greater than for any other cation transport system