Immunohistochemical Expression of NKX3.1 in Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Correlates with Tumors Grade among Sudanese

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جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري
Abstract: Background: The second most frequent cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer overall for both sexes is prostate cancer. On chromosome 8p, there is a prostatic tumor suppressor gene called NKX3.1. Despite the fact that the majority of primary prostatic adenocarcinomas exhibit positive NKX3.1 protein staining. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of NKX3.1in prostate adenocarcinoma and correlate it with tumor grades among Sudanese patients. Materials and Methods: This study is a retrospective descriptive cross- sectional study, was conducted in Khartoum state, (Radiation& Istopes Center- Khartoum (RICK)). Tissue sections were stained by immunohistochemical staining against NKX3.1 (indirect dextral polymers (Dako- EnVision TM Flex kit)) was carried out on forty (40) archival formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks from patients diagnosed as prostate carcinoma. Data were collected from hospital records and the immunohistochemical results and then analyzed using SPSS 25.0 frequency, and Chi-Square and mean were calculated. Results: The study found that the most frequent age group is between (71 – 80) years old, twenty (20) cases have prostate adenocarcinoma grade III, twelve (12) cases were grade II, and eight (8) cases were grade I. Any nuclear NKX3.1 staining was regarded as positive. Thirty-five (35%) have NKX3 positive immunostain while (65%) have a negative result. There is a statistically significant correlation between the NKX3.1 expressions and tumor grade as the P. value was (0.000), while in a statistically significant correlation between the NKX3 expressions and patients' age as the P. value was (0.957). Conclusions: NKX3 immuno expression is strongly associated with higher tumor grade and may prove the role of this protein in the progression of prostate cancer.