Awareness and Practice of Caregivers toward Type 1 Diabetes Among Children in Khartoum State 2021

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جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري
Abstract Background: Type 1 diabetes, also known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic autoimmune disease in which the pancreas produces very little or no insulin due to autoantibodies against the β-cell of the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that is required for sugar (glucose) to enter cells and produce energy. Knowledge of disease and socioeconomic status (SES) of family, mother, and caregiver plays an important role in the management of diabetes, especially type 1 diabetes in children. Objective: To assess the Awareness and Practice of caregivers toward Insulin dependent diabetic children in Khartoum State 2021. Methodology: It was a descriptive, cross-sectional hospital-based study conducted at Sudan’s childhood diabetes center. Data were collected through interviewer-administered data collection sheets on the children’s caregivers (Google form). Results: A total of 93 caregivers of type 1 diabetic children participated in this study; according to the demographic data of the children; their age range from 4 to 14 years, 51 (55%) children were aged from 5-10 years, and 33 (36%) were aged more than 10 years, and 9 (10%) were aged less than 5 years with an average age of 9 years. According to the maternal educational level; most of the mothers 57 (61%) graduated from university. Of most of the fathers 36 (39%) were employees, and 30 (32%) were free workers. According to the awareness and attitude, type 1 diabetes; all (100%) of them were aware of to use of insulin (ideal dose, site of injection, storage of insulin, injection with supervisor or alone), 81 (87%) of the caregivers were aware to types of diabetes, 81 (87%) of them were aware to Hb A1C, 78 (84%) of them were aware to home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM), and FBG, 78 (84%) of the participants were aware to types of diet (number of meal/day, types of meals/day, sugar content or not, exercise or not on exercise), and 78 (84%) of the participants were aware symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. However, some of the participants had poor awareness regarding diabetes retinopathy and nephropathy. Conclusion: According to our findings, caregivers with more diabetes awareness and education were able to keep their children’s glycemic control better regardless of socioeconomic status. In addition, in the routine questions asked of the diabetic patient and the care provider, a method of assessing socioeconomic changes such as loss of income, divorce, and disability must be incorporated. The majority of the participants in the study had a positive outlook on type 1 diabetes.