Blood Group Type, Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and Angiotensin-2 Impact on COVID.19 Outcomes

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جامعة الشيخ عبدالله البدري
OVID-19 pandemic influences varied people in dissimilar ways. Infected people have had a broad range of symptoms ranged from mild symptoms to severe illness. This review discussed the direct impact of Angiotensin II in the initiation of the pathogenesis of COVID-19 at the primary phase of infection and its indirect influence severity of it, through stimulus of soluble intracellular adhe sion molecule type-1, which lead to increased its concentration and that lead to excessive release of cytokines in a condition known as cytokines storm. Reduction in Angiotensin II at the secondary phase of infection due to cells being invaded with COVID-19 virus leads to reduction of soluble intracellular adhesion molecules which regulate the immune system, then virus pass to different organs in the body. Individuals with low-level of intracellular adhesion molecules such as aged, diabetic, patients of cardiovascular disease obese, A blood group and rhesus negative developed severe symptoms when infected with COVID.19, due to weak stimulus from Angiotensin II at the first phase and inactivation of soluble intracellular adhesion molecule type-1 at the second phase of infection, which may lead to loss of patient life. We conclude that the crucial role in pathogenesis of COVID-19 related to Angiotensin -2 concentration, nor soluble intracellular adhesion molecules type -1 neither ABO blood group nor rhesus system.